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File Type $19 (25) - All Auxiliary Types

AppleWorks Data Base File

Full Name: AppleWorks Data Base File
Short Name: AppleWorks DB File

Revised by Matt Deatherage & John Kinder, Claris Corporation (July 1990)
Written by Bob Lissner (February 1984)

Files of this type and auxiliary type contain an AppleWorks(R) Data Base file.

Changes since September 1989: Corrected the description of offset +337 in the header.


Files of type $19 and any auxiliary type contain an AppleWorks Data Base file. AppleWorks is published by Claris. Claris also has additional information on AppleWorks files SEG.PR and SEG.ER. For information on AppleWorks, contact Claris at:

Claris Corporation
5201 Patrick Henry Drive
P.O. Box 58168
Santa Clara, CA 95052-8168
Technical Support
Telephone: (408) 727-9054
AppleLink: Claris.Tech
Customer Relations
Telephone: (408) 727-8227
AppleLink: Claris.CR

AppleWorks was created by Bob Lissner. AppleWorks 2.1 was done by Bob Lissner and John Kinder of Claris. AppleWorks 3.0 was done by Randy Brandt, Alan Bird and Rob Renstrom of Beagle Bros Software with John Kinder of Claris.

Definitions

The following definitions apply to AppleWorks files in addition to those defined for all Apple II file types:

MRL
Data base multiple record layout
SRL
Data base single record layout
RAC
Review/Add/Change screen
DB
AppleWorks or /// E-Z Pieces Data Base
SS
AppleWorks or /// E-Z Pieces Spreadsheet
WP
AppleWorks or /// E-Z Pieces Word Processor
AW
AppleWorks or /// E-Z Pieces

Auxiliary Type Definitions

The volume or subdirectory auxiliary type word for this file type is defined to control uppercase and lowercase display of filenames. The highest bit of the least significant byte corresponds to the first character of the filename, the next highest bit of the least significant byte corresponds to the second character, etc., through the second bit of the most significant byte, which corresponds to the fifteenth character of the filename.

AppleWorks performs the following steps when it saves a file to disk:

  1. Zeros all 16 bits of the auxiliary type word.
  2. Examines the filename for lowercase letters. If one is found, it changes the corresponding bit in the auxiliary type word to 1 and changes the letter to uppercase.
  3. Examines the filename for spaces. If one is found, it changes the corresponding bit in the auxiliary type word to 1 and changes the space to a period.

When files are read from disk, the filename and auxiliary type information from the directory file entry are used to determine which characters should be lowercase and which periods should be displayed as spaces. If you use the auxiliary type bytes for a different purpose, AppleWorks will still display the filenames, but the wrong letters are likely lowercase.

File Version Changes

Certain features present in AppleWorks 3.0 files are not backward-compatible to 2.1 and earlier versions. Such features are noted in the text. AppleWorks Data Base files which may not be loaded by versions prior to 3.0 are identified by a non-zero byte at location +218, referred to as location DBMinVers.

Those features added for AppleWorks 2.0, 2.1 and 3.0 not previously documented are indicated with that version number in the margin.

Data Base Files

Data base files start with a variable length header, followed by 600 bytes for each report format (if any), the standard values record, then variable length information for each record.

Header Record

The header contains category names, record selection rules, counts, screen positioning information, and all other non-record specific information.

+000 to +001: Word
The number of bytes in the remainder of the header record. Use this count for your next ProDOS read from the disk.
+002 to +029
Ignore these bytes.
+030: Byte
Cursor direction when the Return key is pressed in SRL. $01: Order in which you defined categories or $02: Left to right, top to bottom.
+031: Byte
What direction should the cursor go when you press the Return key in the MRL? D)own or R)ight.
+032 to +033
Ignore these bytes.
+034: Byte
Style of display that Review/Add/Change was using when the file was saved: R: SRL. Slash (/): MRL.
+035: Byte
Number of categories per record. Values from $01 to $1E.
+036 to +037: Word (3.0)
Number of records in file. If DBMinVers is non-zero, the high bit of this word may be set. If it is, there are more than eight reports and the remaining 15 bits contain the true number of records defined.
+038: Byte (3.0)
Number of reports in a file, maximum of 8 (20 for 3.0).
+039 to +041
Ignore these bytes.
+042 to +071: Byte
For each of up to 30 columns, showing the number of spaces used for this column on the MRL. Be sure you understand that categories may have been rearranged on the MRL. Byte +042 refers to the leftmost column on the MRL.
+072 to +077
Ignore six bytes.
+078 to +107: Byte
For up to 30 categories on the MRL, the defined category that appears in each position. Byte +078 is the leftmost column of the MRL and has a value from $01 to $1E that defines which of the category names appears in this position. These numbers change as a result of changing the layout of the MRL.
+108 to +113
Ignore six bytes.
+114 to +143: Byte
For up to 30 categories on the SRL, the horizontal screen position. These are changed as a result of changing the layout of the SRL. AppleWorks makes sure that these entries, and the vertical screen positions, are kept in order from left to right within top to bottom.
+144 to +149
Ignore these six bytes.
+150 to +179: Byte
For up to 30 categories on the SRL, the vertical screen position.
+180 to +185
Ignore six bytes.
+186 to +215: Bytes
For up to 30 categories on the SRL, which of the category names appears in this position. These change as a result of changing the SRL. This number refers to the category names listed below.
+216 to +217
Ignore two bytes.
+218: Byte (3.0)
DBMinVers. The minimum version of AppleWorks needed to read this file. This will be $00 unless there are more than 8 report formats; it will then contain the version number 30 ($1E) or greater.
+219: Byte
The first frozen column in the titles.
+220: Byte (3.0)
If this is zero, no titles are present. If non-zero, this is the last frozen column.
+221: Byte (3.0)
Leftmost active column. This is zero-based; if this value is zero, it means column one, etc.
+222: Byte
Number of categories on MRL. Will be less than or equal to the number of categories in the file. SRL displays all categories, so there is no equivalent number for SRL.
+223 to +224: Word
For the first line of RAC selection rules. Zero means no selection rules, while any other value refers to the category name that is tested. The high byte will always be zero.
+225 to +226: Word
Category name for the second line of RAC selection rules. Zero means that there is only one line.
+227 to +228: Word
Category name for the third line of RAC selection rules. Zero means that there is no third line.
+229 to +230: Word
For the first line of RAC rules, which of the tests is to be applied. 1 means equals, 2 means greater than and so on.
+231 to +232: Word
Test for the second line of rules, if any.
+233 to +234: Word
Test for the third line, if any.
+235 to +236: Word
Continuation code for the first line: 1: And, 2: Or, 3: Through.
+237 to +238: Word
Continuation code for the second line.
+239 to +240: Word
Continuation code for the third line. Not possible, so it is always zero.
+241 to +272: String
Maximum length of 30 bytes. Comparison information for the first line RAC selection rules.
+273 to +304: String
Comparison for the second line.
+305 to +336: String
Comparison for the third line.
+337 to +356
Ignore these twenty bytes.
+357 to +378: String
Name of the first category. Maximum length of 20 bytes. If the file has only one category, the header record will end here.
+379 to +400: String
Name of the second category, if any. This area will not be on the header record if there is only one category.
+401: 22 Bytes
Additional 22 byte entries for all remaining categories. The size of the header record depends on the number of categories. Space is not maintained past the last category.

Report Records

Report records follow the header record. One of the header record categories tells you how many report records to expect. The number will be from zero to eight. Each report record is 600 bytes, and contains:

+000 to +019: String
Report name. Maximum length of 19 characters.
+020 to +052: Bytes
Column width for up to 33 columns in a tables-style report format. Byte +020 is for the leftmost column on a tables-style report. There can be up to 30 categories from the file, plus 3 more calculated columns.
For labels-style report formats, the value is a byte that has the horizontal position of this category, relative to the left margin.
+053 to +055
Skip 3 bytes.
+056 to +088: Bytes
For tables-style:
Number of spaces to be printed at the right of justified columns.
For labels-style:
Vertical position on the report for each of up to 30 categories. A value of 1 means that category is on the first line of labels-style report.
+089 to +091
Skip 3 bytes.
+092 to +124: Bytes
For up to 33 columns of tables-style:
Values from 1 to 30 refer to which category name appears in this column on the report. Values of 80, $81 and $82 are the three calculated categories, from left to right.
For labels-style:
Same as tables-style, minus the calculated categories.
+125 to +127
Skip these three bytes.
+128 to +160: Bytes
For up to 33 columns of tables-style:
$99 means no foot totals, 0 through 4 means the number of decimal places for a foot total.
For labels-style:
For up to 30 categories on report, Boolean bytes whether or not category names are to be printed.
+161 to +163
Skip these three bytes.
+164 to +196: Bytes
For up to 33 columns of tables-style:
$99 means left justified, 0 through 4 means right justified with 0 to 4 decimal places.
For up to 30 categories of labels-style:
Boolean bytes whether or not to float (OA-J) this category up against the category to its left.
+197 to +199
Skip three bytes.
+200: Byte
Number of categories on report. Includes calculated categories, if any.
+201: Byte
Tables-style.
If there is at least one calculated category, this contains values from 1 to 33: which column of the report.
Labels-style:
Values from 3 to 21. Position of the line on the screen that says "Each record will print nn lines."
+202: Byte
Tables-style:
Same as +201, but for the second calculated category, if any.
Labels-style:
Unused.
+203: Byte
Tables-style:
Same as +201, but for the third calculated category, if any.
Labels-style:
Unused
+204: Byte
Tables-style only: If there is a group total column, this byte states which of the category names is used as a basis. Values from 1 to 30.
+205: Byte
Platen width value, in 10ths of an inch. For example, a value of 8.0 inches entered by the user will show as 80 or $50.
+206: Byte
Left margin value. All inches values are in 10ths.
+207: Byte
Right margin value.
+208: Byte
Characters per inch.
+209: Byte
Paper length value, in 10ths of an inch.
+210: Byte
Top margin value.
+211: Byte
Bottom margin value.
+212: Byte
Lines per inch. 6 or 8.
+213: Byte
Not relevant. Probably always a "C."
+214: Byte
Type of report format. H: tables-style, V: labels-style.
+215: Byte
Spacing: S(ingle, D(ouble, or T(riple. Expect these three letters, even in European versions.
+216: Byte
Print report header. Boolean.
+217: Byte
Tables-style: If user has specified group totals, Boolean, just print the group totals.
+218: Byte
Labels-style: Boolean, omit the line when all entries on the line are blank.
+219: Byte
Labels-style: Boolean, keep the number of lines the same within each record.
+220 to +301: String
80-byte string. Title line, if any.
+302 to +323: String
Tables-style. 20-byte string. Name of the first calculated category, if any.
+324 to +355: String
Tables-style. 30-byte string. Calculation rules for first calculated category, if any.
+356 to +409: String
Tables-style. Name and rules for second calculated category, if any.
+410 to +463: String
Tables-style. Name and rules for third calculated category, if any.
+464 to +477: String
If user has specified "Send special codes to printer," this is a 13 byte string containing those codes.
+478: Byte
Boolean: Print a dash when an entry is blank.
+479 to +592: Words & Strings
Record selection rules. Exact same format as described in the header record.
+593 to +599
Unused

Data Records

Data records follow the report records. The first data record contains the standard values. Each following data record corresponds to one data base record.

These records contain all of the categories within one stream of data. The category entries are in the same order that the category names appear in the header record.

Bytes +0 and +1 are a word that contains a count of the number of bytes in the remainder of the record.

Byte +2 of each record will always be a control byte. Other control bytes within each record define the contents of the record. Control bytes may be:

$01-$7F
This is a count of the number of following bytes that are the contents of a category.
$81-$9E
This (minus $80) is a count of the number of categories to be skipped. For example, $82 means skip two categories.
$FF
This indicates the end of the record.

The information in individual categories may have some special coding so that date and time entries can be arranged (sorted).

Date entries have the following format:

+000: Byte
$C0 (192). Identifies a date entry.
+001 to 002: Two bytes
ASCII year code, like "84" ($38 $34).
+003: Byte
ASCII month code. A means January, L means December.
+004 to +005: Two bytes
ASCII day of the month, like "31" ($33 $31).

Time entries have the following format:

+000: Byte
$D4 (212). Identifies a time entry.
+001: Byte
ASCII hour code. A means 00 (the hour after midnight). X means 23, the hour before midnight.
+002 to +003: Two bytes
ASCII minute code. Values from 00 to 59.

File Tags

All AppleWorks files normally end with two bytes of $FF; tags are anything after that. Although File Tags were primarily designed by Beagle Bros, they can be used by any application that needs to create or modify an AppleWorks 3.0 file.

Because versions of AppleWorks before 3.0 stop at the double $FF, they simply ignore tags.

The File Tag structure is as follows:

+000: Byte
Tag ID. Should be $FF.
+001: Byte
2nd ID byte. These values will be defined and arbitrated by Beagle Bros Software. Beagle may be reached at:

Beagle Bros Inc
6215 Ferris Square, #100
San Diego, CA 92121
+002 to +003: Word
Data length. If this is the last tag on the file, the low byte (+002) will be a count of the tags in this file, and the high byte (+003) will be $FF.
+004 to nnn: Bytes
Actual tag data, immediately followed by the next four-byte tag ID. These bytes do not exist for the last tag.

There is a maximum of 64 tags per file. Each tag may be no larger than 2K.


The Apple II Technical Notes have been converted to HTML by Aaron Heiss as a public service to the Apple II community, with permission by Apple Computer, Inc.

 

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